Archaelogical Evidence that Tonina was a Major Mayan Calendar School
Much has been made of the fact that the 3114 BC creation date is carved into stone at Palenque, Quirigua and Copan. Not only is the creation date found at Tonina, but the last known Long Count date is at Tonina.
Mayan Cosmology Revealed at Tonina
According to epigrapher Guillermo Bernal, Ahau One Hunajpu, in an inscription at Toniana, speaks of the third creation of the universe in Mayan cosmology and the third reconstruction of the sacred ball game. Archaeologist Juan Yadeum says that these inscriptions, along with others, “give us the whole story of the creation of the universe, which has three icons that are in this field and in this ball game.”
The Sunken Ball Court
Toniná is also home to one of the few sunken ball courts, considered a portal to the Underworld, found in ancient Mesoamerica, as well as an even more rare ceremonial maze and four observatories.
The Ballgame court at Tonina is the one that most resembles the one described in Popol Vuh, since it is, among the ones known in Mexico, the deepest sunken ballcourt, and the sacred book of the Maya points out that the Ballcourt of the Underworld is the meander of a plentiful river. In the case of Tonina, there is a river that often floods the court."
The Frieze of the Four Suns has been interpreted by some as a mural depicting the four ages of the world as they correspond to similar creation myths in Mesoamerican culture.
Tonina Used the Short Count, or Katun Wheel
Tonina is the only Maya city west of Tikal thought to have used the Short Count (the 260-year Katun Wheel, used for prophecies) simultaneously with the Long Count.The current katun, which completes this cycle on December 21, 2012, is 4 Aj’pu/Ahau (Sun). Several katun ending dates were recorded at Tonina as well as Tikal and other prominent Mayan sites.
The archaeological and anthropological information on this page was uncovered by the author following his field work at Tonina in February 2012. Another expedition is planned for later this year.
Researched and written in Guatemala, The Mayan Calendar User's Guide reveals astrological techniques and secrets never before published in the English language.
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